Article citation information:

Mrozik, M. Analysis of aircraft delays in FIR Warsaw in the context of radionavigation systems. Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology. Series Transport. 2019, 102, 131-140. ISSN: 0209-3324. DOI:



Magda MROZIK[1]






Summary. The paper contains an analysis of the causes of aircraft delays at the main airports in Poland. Due to the fact that for several years there has been a large increase in the volume of air traffic, generates operational and organisational problems related to aircraft servicing, both at the airport and in the air. Due to the PBN STAR procedure, it is possible not only to make more efficient use of the airspace, such as route layout, reduction of flight time by at least 2 min, reduction of separation but also to reduce the amount of harmful substances produced by the aircraft. When performing RNAV GNSS air operations, an aircraft saves approximately 275 kg of fuel per flight, which has a significant impact on environmental protection.

Keywords: aviation, PBN, radionavigation systems





Aviation is one of the most dynamically developing areas of transport. For several years now, there has been a large increase in air traffic both in Europe and all over the world. The emergence of new air carriers, the creation of new international or intercontinental connections generates operational and organisational problems related to aircraft maintenance at the airport and in the air. These problems affect the punctuality of air operations. However, delays are also generated by independent reasons such as the weather. Unfavourable weather conditions contribute more than 50% to the change in the flight schedule of aircraft. A bad meteorological situation can disrupt or even paralyse air operations. The aircraft take-off and landing procedure depends on the state of the weather. By reducing the impact of operational factors, the aim is to increase air capacity. As a result, programmes have been formulated in Europe for the efficient management of air transport. One such project was the Single European Sky (SES) initiative and the creation of the Single Sky Committee (SSC). The SCC consists of civil and military representatives of the Member States, whose primary objective is to assist the European Commission in the implementation of the SES project. Based on the effect of unsatisfactory results, the programme was modernised several times by establishing SES II and SES II+. The programme, inter alia, strengthens the network management function, enhances the competence of EASA in the context of safe airport operations and traffic management, and introduces interoperability of the European air traffic management network. SES II also introduced a new traffic surveillance programme, SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research). Its main objective is to develop Air Traffic Management (ATM) procedures and technologies that will contribute to reducing delays and the negative impact of aircraft on the environment, as well as to increasing airspace and airport capacity. In connection with the effectiveness of the implemented assumptions, it was assumed that in 2020, among others, ATM costs will be reduced by 50%, the negative impact of aviation on nature will be reduced by 10% or capacity will be increased threefold while safety will be improved[2]. It should be kept in mind that SESAR proposes the implementation of new navigation systems and aids such as GNSS as one of the main ways to optimise aircraft routes and increase airspace capacity.





Flight Information Region Warsaw (FIR Warszawa) is a defined area of airspace in which flight information service and emergency services are provided[3]. In Poland, air traffic management is the responsibility of the Polish Air Navigation Agency. FIR Warsaw includes the Polish airspace (over the land area, internal waters and territorial sea) and the ICAO-determined part of the Baltic Sea space, which is delineated by a line of defined geographical points. The Flight Information Region is classified as a controlled and uncontrolled area. In the controlled area of the aircraft, an ATC (Air Traffic Control) service is provided which regulates the flow of air traffic and prevents collisions of aircraft during air operations. This area includes the airways controlled by the ACC area control service, the TMA controlled area checked by the APP Approach Control Unit and the CTR controlled areas of airports where traffic control is exercised by the TWR Airport Control Tower. In the uncontrolled area, information is provided to the aircraft through the Flight Information Service (FIS). There are five FIS sectors in the Republic of Poland:

-        Warsaw (119,450 MHz).

-        Olsztyn (118,775 MHz).

-        Poznań (126,300 MHz).

-        Gdańsk (127,150 MHz).

-        Kraków (119,275 MHz).


Operational Air Traffic Controllers (OATs) are responsible for the operation of military aircraft.

Figure 1 shows the CTR-controlled areas together with the operational information for EPKT airport. Figure 1 shows that the CTR-controlled areas of the following airports in Poland are included in the CTR-controlled areas:

-        EPGD (Gdańsk-Rębiechowo).

-        EPSC (Szczecin-Goleniów).

-        EPSY(Olsztyn-Mazury).

-        EPBY (Bydgoszcz-Szwederowo).

-        EPPO (Poznań-Ławica).

-        EPMO (Warsaw-Modlin).

-        EPZG (Zielona Góra-Babimost).

-        EPWR (Wrocław-Strachowice).

-        EPWA (Chopina w Warszawie).

-        EPLL (Łódź-Lublinek).

-        EPRA (Radom-Sadków).

-        EPKT (Katowice-Pyrzowice).

-        EPKK (Krakow-Balice).

-        EPRZ (Rzeszów-Jasionka)

-        EPLB (Lublin).


Fig. 1. Controlled areas of TMA airports


Figure 2 shows the FIS Air Information Service in the area of the FIR EPWW.